Apollo-Helios or Apollo and Helios?

The god Apollo in Greco-Egyptian magical papyri

This paper focuses on Apollo as this divinity is represented in Greco-Egyptian magical texts. This god, thoroughly studied in the religious sphere of the Ancient world, has been scarcely examined in the realm of Greco-Egyptian magic. For this reason, this paper offers a detailed examination of the verbal depictions (invocations) and plastic representations (drawings and statuettes) of Apollo in Greco-Egyptian magical papyri. Special attention will be given to the existence of different compositional layers in the texts, in order to better delineate the portrait(s) of Apollo in this particular ritual setting.


Paper presented at the international conference Calling upon Gods, Offering Bodies. Strategies of Human-Divine Communication in the Roman Empire from Individual Experience to Social Reproduction, hosted by the University of Málaga, 23-25 June 2021, Málaga (Spain).